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Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan.
This article is about the greater metropolitan area known as Adelaide. For the local government area, see City of Adelaide. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia.
Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city.
By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north.
Governor Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house, the Adelaide Gaol, police barracks, a hospital, a customs house and a wharf at Port Adelaide.
It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist Intelligence Unit Prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation (pronounced "Garner").
Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836.
Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia.Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area.Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, and its large defence and manufacturing sectors.Drought and poor harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia.
Adelaide was not as badly hit as the larger gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and silver and lead discoveries at Broken Hill provided some relief.In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the now turbid River Torrens.